balancing module is part of the
5.2.1. Module Files¶
- Driver Configuration:
balancing module takes care of the voltage or charge equalization of the battery
cells. Balancing is deactivated by default by the switch
which is set to
TRUE, to prevent automatic start of the balancing when
foxBMS is used in a laboratory environment for example. The switch must be
manually set to
FALSE to allow the automatic balancing and charge
The default balancing method is voltage-based balancing. This is set by the
which is then set to
TRUE. A more advanced balancing method implemented in
foxBMS is based on the SOC history balancing. As this method needs a look-up
table of the used battery cell behavior, it is not the default method. It can
be used by setting the switch
When the current flowing through the battery is below the limit defined by
balancing module waits
BAL_TIME_BEFORE_BALANCING_S seconds before starting to
perform balancing. The waiting time is re-initialized every time the current
No balancing takes place if the voltage of the cells in the battery pack goes
BAL_LOWER_VOLTAGE_LIMIT_MV or the maximum temperature of the cells
in the pack goes above
5.2.3. Voltage-based balancing¶
In voltage-based balancing, the
balancing module takes the minimum battery cell
voltage of the complete battery pack and activates balancing for all the cells
whose voltage is above the minimum +
BAL_THRESHOLD_MV. Once all cells have
been balanced, the threshold is set to
BAL_HYSTERESIS_MV to avoid an oscillating behavior
between balancing and not balancing.
bms module, when entering the
STANDBY state, voltage-based balancing
is allowed. When entering
ERROR, voltage-based balancing
is not allowed.
Fig. 5.17 shows the state machine managing voltage-based balancing in foxBMS.
5.2.4. SOC history-based balancing¶
The SOC history-based balancing works as follows: at one point in time, when no current is flowing and the cell voltages have fully relaxed (e.g., after 3 hours rest time), the voltages of all cells are measured. With a suitable SOC versus voltage look-up table, the voltages are converted to their respective SOCs. The SOCs are then translated to Depth-of-Discharge (DOD) using the nominal capacity, with:
DOD = Capacity * (1-SOC)
The cell with the highest DOD is taken as a reference, since it is the most discharged cell in the battery pack. Its charge difference is set to 0. For all other cells, the charge difference is computed via:
Charge difference(considered cell) = DOD(reference cell) - DOD(considered cell)
Balancing is then switched on for all cells. Every second, for each cell, the voltage is taken and the balancing current computed with:
current = cell voltage / balancing resistance
The balancing quantity:
current * 1s
is subtracted from the charge difference. Balancing is stays turned on until the charge difference reaches 0.
In SOC history-based balancing,
BS_BALANCING_RESISTANCE_OHM must be
defined identically to the balancing resistances soldered on the BMS-Slave Board.
When the imbalances are computed, they are set to a non-zero value to balance
each specific cell only if its cell voltage is above the minimum cell voltage
of the battery pack plus a threshold. The threshold is set in this case to
BAL_HYSTERESIS_MV. It is not simply set to
BAL_THRESHOLD_MV for compatibility reasons with the code shared with the
The correspondence between cell voltage and SOC must be defined by the user
depending on the specific battery cells used. Currently, it is done in the
sox.c. This function gets a voltage
in V and return an SOC between 0 and 1.
The SOC to voltage correspondence is specific to the cell used. The user must define the look-up table, or the SOC history-based balancing will not perform as expected.
Fig. 5.18 shows the state machine managing the SOC history-based balancing in foxBMS.